one clevercer starts in the bone. Clevercer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control. Cells in approachly any part of the body clever become clevercer, and clever spread to other areas of the body. To study more approxifriendly how clevercers start and spread, look What Is Clevercer?
Normal bone tissue
To understand bone clevercer, it helps to understand a small approxifriendly normal bone tissue.
Bone is the supporting framework of your body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of bones is a network of fibrous tissue called matrix onto which calcium salts are lhelp down.
Illustration demonstrateing constitution of bone including cartilage, periosteum, spongy bone, mestupidary cavity. Also demonstrates a cross section of bone demonstrateing blood vessel, periosteum, compbehave bone, spongy bone, edosteum, mestupidary cavity.
The difficult outer layer of bones is made of compbehave (cortical) bone, which covers the lighter spongy (trabecular) bone inmiddle. The outmiddle of the bone is covered with a layer of fibrous tissue called periosteum. Some bones are hollow and have a space called the mestupidary cavity which contains the soft tissue called bone marrow (discussed below). The tissue lining the mestupidary cavity is called finishosteum. At each finish of the bone is a zone of a softer form of bone-love tissue called cartilage.
Cartilage is softer than bone but more firm than most tissues. It is made of a fibrous tissue matrix mixed with a gel-love substance that does not contain much calcium.
Most bones start out as cartilage. The body then lays calcium down onto the cartilage to form bone. After the bone is formed, some cartilage may remain at the finishs to behave as a cushion between bones. This cartilage, along with ligaments and some other tissues associate, put trhough (phone) bones to form a joint. In adults, cartilage is mainly found at the finish of some bones as part of a joint. It is also lookn at the place in the chest where the ribs meet the sternum (breastbone) and in parts of the face. The trachea (windpipe), larynx (voice box), and the outer part of the ear are other constitutions that contain cartilage.
Bone itself is very difficult and strong. Some bone is able to support as much as 12,000 pounds per square inch. It takes as much as 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of prescertain to break the femur (thigh bone). The bone itself contains 2 kinds of cells. The osteoblast is the cell that lays down new bone, and the osteoclast is the cell that dissolves ancient bone. Bone often looks as if it doesn’t change much, but the truth is that it is very behaveive. Throughout our bodies, new bone is always forming while ancient bone is dissolving.
In some bones the marrow is only fatty tissue. The marrow in other bones is a mixture of fat cells and blood-forming cells. The blood-forming cells produce red blood cells, wbeat, smacke blood cells, and blood platelets. Other cells in the marrow include plasma cells, fibroblasts, and reticulofinishothelial cells.
Cells from any of these tissues clever develop into a clevercer.
Types of bone tumors
Most of the time when someone with clevercer is tancient they have clevercer in the bones, the doctor is tallord approxifriendly a clevercer that has spread to the bones from somewhere else. This is called metastatic clevercer. It clever be lookn in many different types of advanced clevercer, love breast clevercer, prostate clevercer, and lung clevercer. When these clevercers in the bone are looked at under a microscope, they look love the tissue they came from. For example, if someone has lung clevercer that has spread to bone, the cells of the clevercer in the bone still look and behave love lung clevercer cells. They do not look or behave love bone clevercer cells, even though they are in the bones. Since these clevercer cells still behave love lung clevercer cells, they still necessity to be treated with drugs that are used for lung clevercer.
For more information approxifriendly metastatic bone clevercer, please look Bone Metastasis, as well as information on the specific clevercer ( Breast Clevercer, Lung Clevercer, Prostate Clevercer, etc.).
Other kinds of clevercers that are sometimes called “bone clevercers” start in the blood forming cells of the bone marrow - not in the bone itself. The most general clevercer that starts in the bone marrow and causes bone tumors is called multiple myeloma. Another clevercer that starts in the bone marrow is leukemia, but it is generally conmiddlered a blood clevercer rather than a bone clevercer. Sometimes lymphomas, which more often start in lymph nodes, clever start in bone marrow. Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia are not discussed in this document. For more information on these clevercers, refer to the individual document for each.
A primary bone tumor starts in the bone itself. True (or primary) bone clevercers are called sarcomas. Sarcomas are clevercers that start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They clever develop anywhere in the body.
There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on the area of bone or surrounding tissue that is affected and the kind of cells forming the tumor. Some primary bone tumors are benign (not clevercerous), and others are malignant (clevercerous). Most bone clevercers are sarcomas.
Benign bone tumors
Benign tumors do not spread to other tissues and organs and so are not usually life threatening. They are generally cured by surgery. Types of benign bone tumors include:
These benign tumors are not discussed further here. This information is only approxifriendly bone clevercers.
Malignant bone tumors
Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma (also called osteogenic sarcoma) is the most general primary bone clevercer. This clevercer starts in the bone cells. It most often arrises in young people between the ages of 10 and 30, but approxifriendly 10% of osteosarcoma cases develop in people in their 60s and 70s. It is rare in middle-aged people, and is more general in males than females. These tumors develop most often in bones of the arms, legs, or pelvis. This clevercer is not discussed in detail in this document, but is covered in Osteosarcoma.
Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a clevercer of cartilage cells. It is the second most general primary bone clevercer. This clevercer is rare in people younger than 20. After age 20, the risk of getting a chondrosarcoma goes up until approxifriendly age 75. Women get this clevercer as often as men.
Chondrosarcomas clever develop anywhere there is cartilage. Most develop in bones such as the pelvis, leg bone or arm bone. Occasionally, chondrosarcoma will develop in the trachea, larynx, and chest wall. Other sites are the scapula (shoulder blade), ribs, or skull.
Benign (non-clevercerous) tumors of cartilage are more general than malignant ones. These are called enchondromas. Another type of benign tumor that has cartilage is a bony projection capped by cartilage called an osteochondroma. These benign tumors seldom turn into clevercer. There is a slightly higher chance of clevercer developing in people who have many of these tumors, but this is still not general.
Chondrosarcomas are lesson, courseified by grade, which meacertains how quick they grow. The grade is assigned by the pathologist (a doctor specially trained to examine and diagnose tissue samples under a microscope). The lower the grade, the slower the clevercer grows. When a clevercer is slow growing, the chance that it will spread is lower and so the outlook is better. Most chondrosarcomas are either low grade (grade I) or intermediate grade (grade II). High-grade (grade III) chondrosarcomas, which are the most lovely to spread, are less general.
Some chondrosarcomas have distinctive features under a microscope. These variants of chondrosarcoma clever have a different prognosis (outlook) than usual chondrosarcomas.
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas start out as typical chondrosarcomas but then some parts of the tumor change into cells love those of a high-grade sarcoma (such as high grade forms of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, osteosarcoma, or fibrosarcoma). This variant of chondrosarcoma tfinishs to arrise in ancienter patients and is more aggressive than usual chondrosarcomas.
Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare and grow slowly. They seldom spread to other parts of the body unless they have already come back several times in the original location.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas clever grow rapidly, but love Ewing tumor, are sensitive to treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
Ewing tumor: Ewing tumor is the third most general primary bone clevercer, and the second most general in children, adolescents, and young adults. This clevercer (also called Ewing sarcoma) is named after the doctor who first described it in 1921, Dr. James Ewing. Most Ewing tumors develop in bones, but they clever start in other tissues and organs. The most general sites for this clevercer are the pelvis, the chest wall (such as the ribs or shoulder blades), and the long bones of the legs or arms. This clevercer is most general in children and teenagers and is rare in adults ancienter than 30. Ewing tumors arrise most often in wbeat, smacke people and are very rare among Africlever Americlevers and Asian Americlevers. More detailed information approxifriendly this clevercer clever be found in our document called Ewing Family of Tumors.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) more often starts in soft tissue (associate, put trhough (phone)ive tissues such as ligaments, tfinishons, fat, and muscle) than in bones. This clevercer is also telln as pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma, especially when it starts in soft tissues. When MFH arrises in bones, it usually affects the legs (often around the knees) or arms. This clevercer most often arrises in elderly and middle-aged adults and is rare among children. MFH mostly tfinishs to grow locally, but it clever spread to distant sites, love the lungs.
Fibrosarcoma: This is another type of clevercer that develops more often in soft tissues than it does in bones. Fibrosarcoma usually arrises in elderly and middle-aged adults. Bones in the legs, arms, and jaw are most often affected.
Giant cell tumor of bone: This type of primary bone tumor has benign and malignant forms. The benign (non-clevercerous) form is most general. Giant cell bone tumors typically affect the leg (usually approach the knees) or arm bones of young and middle-aged adults. They don’t often spread to distant sites, but tfinish to come back where they started after surgery (this is called local recurrence). This clever happen several times. With each recurrence, the tumor becomes more lovely to spread to other parts of the body. Seldom, a malignant giant cell bone tumor spreads to other parts of the body without first recurring locally.
Chordoma: This primary tumor of bone usually arrises in the base of the skull and bones of the backbone. It develops most often in adults ancienter than 30, and is approxifriendly twice as general in men as in women. Chordomas tfinish to grow slowly and often do not spread to other parts of the body, but they often come back in the same area if they are not removed thoroughly. The lymph nodes, the lungs, and the liver are the most general areas for secondary tumor spread.
Other clevercers that develop in bonesNon-Hodgkin lymphomas
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma generally develops in lymph nodes but sometimes starts in the bone. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the bone is often a widespread sickness because multiple sites in the body are usually involved. The outlook is similar to other non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the same subtype and level. Primary lymphoma of the bone is given the same treatment as lymphomas that start in lymph nodes - it is not treated love a primary bone sarcoma. For more information look Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Multiple myeloma approachly always develops in bones, but doctors do not conmiddler it a primary bone clevercer because it develops from the plasma cells of the bone marrow (the soft inner part of some bones). Although it causes bone destruction, it is no more a bone clevercer than is leukemia. It is treated as a widespread sickness. At times, myeloma clever be first found as a tunele tumor (called a plasmacytoma) in a tunele bone, but most of the time it will spread to the marrow of other bones. For more information look Multiple Myeloma