A risk fbehaveor is anything that affects your chance of getting a sickness, such as breast clevercer. But having a risk fbehaveor, or even many, does not pupose that you are sure to get the sickness.
Some risk fbehaveors for breast clevercer are things you clevernot change, such as being a woman, getting ancienter, and having sure gene changes. These make your risk of breast clevercer higher.
Being a woman
Simply being a woman is the main risk fbehaveor for breast clevercer. Men clever get breast clevercer, too, but this sickness is approxifriendly 100 times more general in women than in men.
As you get ancienter, your risk of breast clevercer goes up. Most breast clevercers are found in women age 55 and ancienter.
Sure inherited genes
Approxifriendly 5% to 10% of breast clevercer cases are idea to be hereditary, puposeing that they result directly from gene defects (called mutations) passed on from a parent.
BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most general cause of hereditary breast clevercer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes clever lead to tidak normal cell growth, which clever lead to clevercer.
If you have inherited a mutated copy of either gene from a parent, you have a higher risk of breast clevercer.
On average, a woman with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation has approxifriendly a 7 in 10 chance of getting breast clevercer by age 80. This risk is also affected by how many other family members have had breast clevercer. (It goes up if more family members are affected.)asbestos
Women with one of these mutations are more lovely to be diagnosed with breast clevercer at a younger age, as well as to have clevercer in both breasts. They also have a higher risk of developing some other clevercers, mainly ovarian clevercer.
In the United States, BRCA mutations are more general in Jewish people of Ashkenazi (Eastern Europe) origin than in other racial and ethnic groups, but anyone clever have them.
Changes in other genes: Other gene mutations clever also lead to inherited breast clevercers. These gene mutations are much less general, and most of them do not increase the risk of breast clevercer as much as the BRCA genes.
ATM: The ATM gene normally helps repair damaged DNA (or helps kill the cell if the damaged clever't be fixed). Inheriting 2 tidak normal copies of this gene causes the sickness ataxia-telangiectasia. Inheriting one tidak normal copy of this gene has been linked to a high swift of breast clevercer in some families.
TP53: The TP53 gene gives instructions for malord a protein called p53 that helps stop the growth of tidak normal cells. Inherited mutations of this gene cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome. People with this syndrome have an increased risk of breast clevercer, as well as some other clevercers such as leukemia, brain tumors, and sarcomas (clevercers of bones or associate, put trhough (phone)ive tissue). This mutation is a rare cause of breast clevercer.
CHEK2: The CHEK2 gene is another gene that normally helps with DNA repair. A CHEK2 mutation clever increase breast clevercer risk approxifriendly 2-fancient.
PTEN: The PTEN gene normally helps regulate cell growth. Inherited mutations in this gene clever cause Cowden syndrome, a rare disorder that puts people at higher risk for both non-clevercer and clevercer tumors in the breasts, as well as growths in the digestive trbehave, thyroid, usemakin, and ovaries.
CDH1: Inherited mutations in this gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric clevercer, a syndrome in which people develop a rare type of belly clevercer. Women with mutations in this gene also have an increased risk of invasive lobular breast clevercer.
STK11: Defects in this gene clever lead to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. People affected with this disorder have pigmented spots on their lips and in their mouths, polyps (abnormal growths) in the urinary and digestive trbehaves, and a higher risk of many types of clevercer, including breast clevercer.
PALB2: The PALB2 gene makes a protein that interbehaves with the protein made by the BRCA2 gene. Mutations in this gene clever lead to a higher risk of breast clevercer.
Mutations in several other genes have also been linked to breast clevercer, but these account for only a little number of cases.
Genetic testing: Genetic testing clever be done to look for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (or less generally in other genes such as PTEN or TP53). While testing clever be useful in some cases, not every woman necessitys to be tested, and the pros and cons necessity to be conmiddlered carefully.
If you’re thinlord approxifriendly genetic testing, it’s strongly recommfinished that you first talk to a genetic counselor, nurse, or doctor who clever explain these tests. It’s very important to understand what genetic testing clever and clever’t know you, and to carefully weigh the benefits and risks of genetic testing before these tests are done. Testing costs a lot and might not be covered by some health insurance plans.
Having a family hitale, narrative of breast clevercer
It’s important to note that most women (approxifriendly 8 out of 10) who get breast clevercer do not have a family hitale, narrative of the sickness. But women who have shut blood relatives with breast clevercer have a higher risk:
Having a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast clevercer approachly doubles a woman’s risk. Having 2 first-degree relatives increases her risk approxifriendly 3-fancient.
Women with a father or brother who have had breast clevercer also have a higher risk of breast clevercer.
Overall, less than 15% of women with breast clevercer have a family member with this sickness.
Having a personal hitale, narrative of breast clevercer
A woman with clevercer in one breast has a higher risk of developing a new clevercer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. (This is different from a recurrence or return of the first clevercer.) Although this risk is low overall, it's even higher for younger women with breast clevercer.
Your race and ethnicity
Overall, wbeat, smacke women are slightly more lovely to develop breast clevercer than Africlever-Americlever women. But in women under age 45, breast clevercer is more general in Africlever-Americlever women. Africlever-Americlever women are also more lovely to die from breast clevercer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americlever women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast clevercer.
Having dense breast tissue
Breasts are made up of fatty tissue, fibrous tissue, and gground, soilular tissue. Someone is shelp to have dense breasts (on a mammogram) when they have more gground, soilular and fibrous tissue and less fatty tissue. Women with dense breasts on mammogram have a risk of breast clevercer that is approxifriendly 1.5 to 2 times that of women with average breast density. Unprofitately, dense breast tissue clever also make it difficulter to look clevercers on mammograms.
A number of fbehaveors clever affect breast density, such as age, menopausal status, the use of sure drugs (including menopausal hormone therapy), pregnancy, and genetics.
Sure benign breast conditions
Women diagnosed with sure benign (non-clevercer) breast conditions may have a higher risk of breast clevercer. Some of these conditions are more shutly linked to breast clevercer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into 3 groups, depfinishing on how they affect this risk.
Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions don’t lookm to affect breast clevercer risk, or if they do, the increase in risk is very little. They include:
Fibrosis and/or simple cysts (sometimes called fibrocystic changes or sickness)
Phyllodes tumor (benign)
A tunele papilloma
Squamous and apocrine meknocklasia
Other tumors (lipoma, hamartoma, hemangioma, neurofibroma, adenomyoepithelioma)
Mastitis (infection of the breast) is not a tumor and does not increase the risk of breast clevercer.
Proliferative lesions without atypia (cell abnormalities): In these conditions there’s excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast, but the cells don't look very abnormal. These conditions lookm to raise a woman’s risk of breast clevercer slightly. They include:
Usual ductal hyperplasia (without atypia)
Several papillomas (called papillomatosis)
Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, the cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue grow excessively, and some of them no longer look normal. These types of lesions include:
Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)
Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)
Breast clevercer risk is approxifriendly 4 to 5 times higher than normal in women with these changes. If a woman also has a family hitale, narrative of breast clevercer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia, she has an even higher risk of breast clevercer.
Lobular cancer in situ (LCIS)
In LCIS, cells that look love clevercer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing gground, soils of the breast, but they are not growing through the wall of the lobules. LCIS is also called lobular neoplasia. It’s sometimes grouped with ductal cancer in situ (DCIS) as a non-invasive breast clevercer, but it differs from DCIS in that it doesn’t lookm to become invasive clevercer if it isn’t treated.
Women with LCIS have a much higher risk of developing clevercer in either breast.
Begining menstruation (periods) early
Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they begined menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast clevercer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Going through menopause after age 55
Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast clevercer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Having radiation to your chest
Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another clevercer (such as Hodgkin sickness or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significlevertly higher risk for breast clevercer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not lookm to increase breast clevercer risk.
Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)
From the 1940s through the early 1970s some pregnant women were given an estrogen-love drug called DES because it was idea to lower their chances of lotune the baby (miscarriage). These women have a slightly increased risk of developing breast clevercer. Women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy may also have a slightly higher risk of breast clevercer.a